Abstract：A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using microsatellite markers derived from BAC end sequences and whole-genome shot gun sequences. Fifty-four F2 plants derived from varieties AU9 and SunUp were used for linkage mapping. A total of 707 markers, including 706 microsatellite loci and the morphological marker fruit flesh color, were mapped into nine major and three minor linkage groups. The resulting map spanned 1069.9 cM with an average distance of 1.5 cM between adjacent markers. This sequence-based microsatellite map resolved the very large linkage group 2 (LG 2) of the previous high-density map using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. The nine major LGs of our map represent papaya’s haploid nine chromosomes with LG 1 of the sex chromosome being the largest. This map validates the suppression of recombination at the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) mapped on LG 1 and at potential centromeric regions of other LGs. Segregation distortion was detected in a large region on LG 1 surrounding the MSY region due to the abortion of the YY genotype and in a region of LG6 due to an unknown cause. This high-density sequencetagged genetic map is being used to integrate genetic and physical maps and to assign genome sequence scaffolds to papaya chromosomes. It provides a framework for comparative structural and evolutional genomic research in the order Brassicales.
Abstract：Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria consume methane as it diffuses away from methanogenic zones of soil and sediment. They act as a biofilter to reduce methane emissions to the atmosphere, and they are therefore targets in strategies to combat global climate change. No cultured methanotroph grows optimally below pH 5, but some environments with active methane cycles are very acidic. Here we describe an extremely acidophilic methanotroph that grows optimally at pH 2.0–2.5. Unlike the known methanotrophs, it does not belong to the phylum Proteobacteria but rather to the Verrucomicrobia, a widespread and diverse bacterial phylum that primarily comprises uncultivated species with unknown genotypes. Analysis of its draft genome detected genes encoding particulate methane monooxygenase that were homologous to genes found in methanotrophic proteobacteria. However, known genetic modules for methanol and formaldehyde oxidation were incomplete or missing, suggesting that the bacterium uses some novel methylotrophic pathways. Phylogenetic analysis of its three pmoA genes (encoding a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase) placed them into a distinct cluster from proteobacterial homologues. This indicates an ancient divergence of Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria methanotrophs rather than a recent horizontal gene transfer of methanotrophic ability. The findings show that methanotrophy in the Bacteria is more taxonomically, ecologically and genetically diverse than previously thought, and that previous studies have failed to assess the full diversity of methanotrophs in acidic environments.
Abstract：Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 33 draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica’s distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.
Abstract：Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, erupted globally from South Asia in 7 pandemics, but there were also local outbreaks between the 6th (1899–1923) and 7th (1961–present) pandemics. All the above are serotype O1, whereas environmental or invertebrate isolates are antigenically diverse. The pre 7th pandemic isolates mentioned above, and other minor pathogenic clones, are related to the 7th pandemic clone, while the 6th pandemic clone is in the same lineage but more distantly related, and non-pathogenic isolates show no clonal structure. To understand the origins and relationships of the pandemic clones, we sequenced the genomes of a 1937 prepandemic strain and a 6th pandemic isolate, and compared them with the published 7th pandemic genome. We distinguished mutational and recombinational events, and allocated these and other events, to specific branches in the evolutionary tree. There were more mutational than recombinational events, but more genes, and 44 times more base pairs, changed by recombination. We used the mutational single-nucleotide polymorphisms and known isolation dates of the prepandemic and 7th pandemic isolates to estimate the mutation rate, and found it to be 100 fold higher than usually assumed. We then used this to estimate the divergence date of the 6th and 7th pandemic clones to be about 1880. While there is a large margin of error, this is far more realistic than the 10,000–50,000 years ago estimated using the usual assumptions. We conclude that the 2 pandemic clones gained pandemic potential independently, and overall there were 29 insertions or deletions of one or more genes. There were also substantial changes in the major integron, attributed to gain of individual cassettes including copying from within, or loss of blocks of cassettes. The approaches used open up new avenues for analysing the origin and history of other important pathogens.
Abstract：Microbes contribute to geochemical cycles in the ecosystem. They also play important roles in biodegradation and bioremediation of contaminated environments, and have great potential in energy conversion and regeneration. Up to date, at least 150 genomes of non-pathogenic microbes have been sequenced, of which, the majority are bacteria from various environments or of industrial uses. The emerging field ‘metagenomics’ in combination with the high-throughput sequencing technology offers opportunities to discover new functions of microbes in the environment on a large scale, and has become the ‘hot spot’ in the field of environmental microbiology. Seven genomes of bacteria from various extreme environments, including high temperature, high and low pressure, and extreme acidic regions, have been sequenced by researchers in China, leading to the discovery of metabolic pathways, genetic functions and new enzymes, which are related to the niches those bacteria occupy. These results were published in Nature, PNAS, Genome Research and other top international journals. In the meantime, several groups in China have started ‘metagenomics’ programs. The outcomes of these researches are expected to generate a considerable number of novel findings, taking Chinese researchers to the frontier of genomics for environmental and industrial microorganisms.